The Evolution of Management Thought and the Patterns of Management Analysis
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others. Despite the inexactness and relative crudity of management theory and science, the development thought on management dates back to the days when people first attempted to accomplish goals by working together in groups. Although modern operational management theory dates primarily from the early twentieth century, there was serious thinking and theorizing about managing many years before. Let us first focus on the evolution of management thought, major contributors are noted.
Characteristics of Management
Management is a managerial process: Management is a process and not merely a body of individuals. Those who perform this process are called managers. The managers exercise leadership by assuming authority and direct others to act within the organisation. Management process involves planning, organising, directing and unifying human efforts for the accomplishment of given tasks.
Management is a social process- Management takes place through people. The importance of human factor in management cannot be ignored. A manager's job is to get the things done with the support and cooperation of subordinates. It is this human element which gives management its special character.
Management is action-based: Management is always for achieving certain objectives in terms of sales, profit, etc. It is a result-oriented concept and not merely an abstract philosophy. It gives importance to concrete performance through suitable actions. It is an action based activity.
Management involves achieving results through the efforts of others: Management is the art of getting the things done through others. Managers are expected to guide and motivate subordinates and get the expected performance from them. Management acts as an activating factor.
Management is a group activity: Management is not an isolated individual activity but it is a collective activity or an activity of a group. It aims at using group efforts for achieving objectives. Managers manage the groups and coordinate the activities of groups functioning in an organisation.
Management is intangible: Management is not directly visible but its presence is noticed in the form of concrete results. Management is intangible. It is like invisible spirit, which guides and motivates people working in a business unit. Management is like government, which functions but is not visible in physical form.
Management is aided, not replaced by computers: The computer is an extremely powerful tool of management. It helps a manager to widen his vision. The computer supplies ocean of information for important decision-making. The computer has unbelievable data processing and feedback facilities. This has enabled the manager to conduct quick analysis towards making correct decisions. A computer supports manager in his managerial work. However, it cannot replace managers in business. They were required in the past, at present and also in future. Their existence is absolutely essential in the management process.
Management is all pervasive: Management is comprehensive...
References: 1. Heinz Weihrich & Harold Koontz: Management A Global Perspective (10th edition).
2. http://books.google.com/books?id=OSAkMZ3SMQ0CHYPERLINK "http://books.google.com/books?id=OSAkMZ3SMQ0C&pg=PA11&lpg"&HYPERLINK "http://books.google.com/books?id=OSAkMZ3SMQ0C&pg=PA11&lpg"pg=PA11HYPERLINK "http://books.google.com/books?id=OSAkMZ3SMQ0C&pg=PA11&lpg"&HYPERLINK "http://books.google.com/books?id=OSAkMZ3SMQ0C&pg=PA11&lpg"lpg
7. Approaches of management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm
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