ALCANESES, Juan Miguel
STO. DOMINGO, Eric
September 19, 2013
Econ 181 Paper
Throughout history, women had been looked down upon and discriminated in a sense that people think that they cannot work or do not have the necessary physical and mental characteristics to do work and have an impact in the productivity of society. Women had been labeled to be only capable of household chores, giving birth and taking care of children, and cooking for their husbands. It is a wrong and disrespectful practice that even some people continue to practice this today. To respond to this, individuals and a number of organizations have been promoting “women power” and have been continuously promoting the rights and capabilities of women to do work and excel in society. We have seen a number of women who have proven themselves against all odds in terms of politics and even in sports but despite their accomplishments, people still continue to discriminate against women, in general, working in the labor force.
We would not be taking up discrimination in this paper but we would just like to use this introduction to explain why our topic exists in society today. Our topic is the effect of having early access to or the availability of contraceptives to the labor supply of women. Because of the constant discrimination and stereotypes that are given to them, women themselves have doubts about their capabilities to work and succeed in society. Women are less willing to get into the labor force because of the stereotype that they should just be at home, giving birth and taking care of their offspring while their husband goes out and earns them income. This has belittled the capabilities of women to make a difference in society and has hindered them to pursue their own dreams may it be to be a doctor, a lawyer, and engineer, etc.
This controversy of women not joining the labor force or are delayed in joining the labor force due to giving birth and taking care of their young has negative effects in society as it increases the unemployed and lessening the productivity of the different institutions and companies that could’ve put these women to use for their productivity and given them income for their families to be better off. To respond to this negative effect, governments around the world had been promoting bills and laws to increase the participation of women in the labor force and so has the Philippines. The Philippines has been undergoing a lot of debates, rallies, and controversies about the proposed Reproductive Health Bill or the “RH Bill” by the government. This bill simply gives the citizens of the Philippines access to contraceptives and family planning seminars paid for or socialized by the government. This paper will be a review of literature on two articles entitled “The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception, Women’s Labor Supply, and the Gender Gap in Wages” by Bailey, Hershbein, and Miller, and “More Power to the Pill: The Impact of Contraceptive Freedom on Women’s Life Cycle Labor Supply” by Martha J. Bailey. We will also hypothesize the effects the RH Bill would have towards the labor force supply of women and its other implications, by basing it on the two academic papers we will review.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A. The Opt-In Revolution
The Opt-In Revolution was written in June 2010 and was a study on the changes in the lifecycle wages for women born between 1920 and 1950 in the United States of America. It specifically targeted those who had access to birth control pills before the age of 21. It showed that women with earlier access to the pill had lower wages in their twenties, but more in their later years. A huge percentage is attributed to the increase of women’s labor market experience. The gender-gap in U.S. wages was decreasing during the 1970’s and 80’s. There was an increased return for women’s investment in skills and lessening differences between labor market skills and work...
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