THE GENERATIONS OF
1. Vacuum tubes as their main logic elements
2. Punch Cards to input and externally stored
3. Rotating magnetic drums for internal
storage of data and programs
1. Program written in
* Machine Language
* Assembly Language
What is Vacuum Tubes?
Vacuum tubes look similar to light
bulbs. This was the first major electrical
parts of a computer replacing manual
switches. After the introduction of
vacuum tubes, there were no problems
with mechanical gears, pulley or levers.
Vacuum tubes marked the end of
mechanical computing and the
beginning of electronics in computer.
This how Vacuum tube looks like
Characteristic of the Vacuum Tubes
First generation computers had
vacuum tubes, resistors, and welded
metal joints. They were very slow,
expensive, and produced a lot of heat. In
addition, first generation computers
often broke down because of burned out
First generation computers also
needed many experts to operate
them. In fact, when these
computers were running, people
stood by with shopping carts full
of replacement tubes.
COMPUTERS WITH VACUUM TUBES
ENIAC- Electronic Numerical
Integrator And Calculator
In 1945 – Presper Eckert and
John Mauchly developed the first
computer called ENIAC, for the US
Army. ENIAC was over 1000 times
faster than Mark I, and could perform
5,000 additions per second.
ENIAC had more than 18,000 vacuum
tubes, and took up to 1,800 square feet of
space. In addition, the electrical current
ENIAC required could power more than a
thousand modern computers today. Today,
ENIAC’s technology could fit in a modern
UNIVAC – 1 Universal Automatic
In 1951 the UNIVAC – 1 became the first
computer. This computer was designed by
Eckert and Mauchly and built by the
Remington Rand Company. The first of
these computers was delivered to the US
Between 1951 and 1953, magnetic core memory was
developed. This memory consist of tiny ferrite donuts that
were arranged on a lattice of wires.
Sixty years ago, the IBM 701
was formally announced. Its official
name was the Defense Calculator,
“specifically selected to appeal to the
patriotism of the older Watson and to
avoid the use of the unacceptable word,
computer,” according to Emerson Pugh
in Building IBM.
IBM’s first electronic business
The Second Generation
TRANSISTOR – (1959-1963)
1. Vacuum tubes replaced by transistors as main logic
2. Magnetic tape and disks began to replace punched
cards as external storage devices.
3. Magnetic cores strung on wire within the computer
became the primary internal storage technology.
High level programming language
E.G. FORTRAN and COBOL
Crystalline mineral materials called semiconductors could be used in the design of a device called transistor.
MORE ABOUT TRANSISTOR
Instead of vacuum tubes, second
generation computers used transistors,
an exciting invention at the time. John
Barden, Walter Brattain and William
Schockley of Bell Telephone Laboratories
invented the transistor. A transistor is a
small, solid state component designed to
monitor the flow of electric current.
CHARATERISTIC OF TRANSISTOR
Transistor were smaller, faster, cheaper, required less
power, and produced less heat than vacuum tubes.
Transistors made second generation of computers
faster and more reliable than first generation
Transistors play an important role in electronic
circuits. Circuits help make up electronic systems, and
electronic system are what make electronic
Transistor allowed the second
generation of computers to
communicate over telephone lines.
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