HEALTH, WELLNESS AND ILLNESS
* Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1947) * Health is not a condition; it is an adjustment. It is not a state but a process. The process adapts the individual not only to our physical, but also our social environments. (President’s Commission 1953)
* Wellness is a state of wellbeing.It means engaging in attitudes and behaviors that enhance quality of life and maximize personal potential. * Wellness is a choice – a decision you make to move toward optimal health. * Wellness is a way of life – a lifestyle you design to achieve your highest potential for wellbeing. * Wellness is a process – a developing awareness that there is no end point but that health and happiness are possible in each moment here and now * Wellness is an efficient channeling of energy – received from the environment, transformed within you, and sent on to affect the world outside. * Wellness is the integration of mind, body, and spirit – the appreciation that everything you do, and think, and feel, and believe has an impact in your state of health.Wellness is the loving acceptance of yourself.
* Well-being is a subjective perception of balance, harmony, and vitality (Leddy and (Pepper, 1993)
Six Dimensions of Wellness:
* According to Anspaugh et. Al.
Models of Health: Overview
* Smith’s Models of Health
* Leavell and Clark’s Agent-Host-Environment Model/Ecologic Model * Health-Illness Continua
* Health Belief Model
Smith’s Models of Health
* Clinical Model – People are viewed as physiologic systems with related functions, and health is identified by the absence of signs and symptoms of disease or injury. * Role Performance Model – Health is defined in terms of the individual’s ability to fulfill societal roles, that is, to perform work. * Adaptive Model – Health is a creative process; disease is a failure in adaptation, or maladaptation * Eudaemonistic Model – Health is seen as a condition of actualization or realization of a person’s potential.
Leavell and Clark’s Agent-Host-Environment Model/Ecologic Model * Three Dynamic Interactive Elements
* Agent – Any environmental factor or stressor that by its presence or absence can lead to illness or disease * Host – Persons who may or may not be at risk of acquiring a disease * Environment – All factors external to the host that may or may not predispose the person to the development of disease
* used to measure a person’s perceived level of wellness.
* Dunn’s High Level Wellness Grid – demonstrates the interaction of the environment with the illness-wellness continuum. The health axis extends from peak wellness to death, and the environmental axis extends from very favorable to very unfavorable. 1. High level wellness in a favorable environment.
2. Emergent high-level wellness in an unfavorable environment. 3. Protected poor health in a favorable environment.
4. Poor health in an unfavorable environment
* Travis’ Illness-Wellness Continuum – ranges from high level wellness to premature death. Movement to the right of neutral point indicates increasing level of health and well-being. Moving to the left indicates a progressively decreasing state of health. Increasing level of health is achieved in three steps: 1. Awareness
Health Belief Model
* Rosenstock (1974) – a relation exists between a person’s belief and actions. * Proposed a health belief model intended to predict which individuals would or would not use such preventive
measures as screening for early detection of cancer.
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